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GFW相关论文研究:Internet Censorship in China

Internet Censorship in China: Where Does the Filtering Occur?

密歇根大学计算机系:Xueyang Xu, Z. Morley Mao, and J. Alex Halderman

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Michigan,
2260 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109
{xueyang,zmao,jhalderm}@umich.edu
http://www.cse.umich.edu
Abstract. China filters Internet traffic in and out of the country. In
order to circumvent the firewall, it is helpful to know where the filtering
occurs. In this work, we explore the AS-level topology of China’s network,
and probe the firewall to find the locations of filtering devices. We find
that even though most filtering occurs in border ASes, choke points also
exist in many provincial networks. The result suggests that two major
ISPs in China have different approaches placing filtering devices.
Keywords: Censorship, topology, network measurement.

1 Introduction
In this work, we explore where Intrusion Detection System (IDS) devices of
the Great Firewall of China (GFC) are placed for keyword filtering at AS and
router level. Knowing where IDSes are attached helps us better understand the
infrastructure of the firewall, gain more knowledge about its behavior and find
vantage point for future circumvention techniques.
China has the world’s most complex Internet censorship system, featuring
IP blocking, keyword filtering, DNS hijacking and so on [1]. IP blocking is the
earliest filtering mechanism. It is easy to circumvent, because webmasters can
always change their IP and DNS record. Besides, censors are very prudent to
do DNS hijacking nowadays due to the risk of affecting the network in other
countries [2]. In this paper, we focus on the most effective filtering mechanism
of GFC, keyword filtering.
According to [4], the filtering occurs more at AS-level rather than strictly
along the border routers. This paper answers the question whether all censorship
occurs at border AS, and how filtering occurs inside those ASes. We first explore
the AS-level topology of China’s network. In this part, we explore which Chinese
ASes are directly peered with foreign ones and which are internal ones. We call
those peered with foreign network border AS, and the others internal AS. The
resulting AS-level topology shows that the best vantage point to place filtering
device is in the border ASes.
To find where IDS devices are attached at router level, we select a set of
web servers in China and probe with HTTP GET packets that contain known
N. Spring and G. Riley (Eds.): PAM 2011, LNCS 6579, pp. 133–142, 2011.
!c Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011
134 X. Xu, Z.M. Mao, and J.A. Halderman
keywords. In order to find more filtering devices, we manually select web servers
to ensure their geographical diversity, as opposed to previous work that uses top
websites in search result. This diversity is desirable, because it helps us to find
more routing paths across China, and with more paths, we can discover more
filtering devices.
The result shows that most filtering devices are in the border ASes, but a
small portion is not. It is possible that there is a trend of placing filtering devices
outside of border ASes. The number of router interfaces that have filtering
devices attached for CHINANET is stable since 2007, while the second largest
filtering force CNCGROUP has increasing number of filtering interfaces. Moreover,
CHINANET’s filtering is decentralized, while CNCGROUP has their IDS
devices mostly in the backbone. A decentralized placement of filtering devices
can facilitate censor to monitor domestic traffic.
The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section 2 introduces the related
work on measurement of the China’s network censorship. Section 3 presents our
result on AS topology of China’s network. We locate filtering devices at router
level in Section 4 to find how they are related to AS-level topology and the device
placement strategies of different ISPs. Section 5 concludes the paper.
2 Related Work
An early work in the censorship measurement field is [3]. This paper analyzes
the keyword filtering mechanism of GFC, and is a good source of background
knowledge. They claim that the mechanism is based on an out-of-band intrusion
detection system at border routers. The system emits forged reset packet
to both destination and source, but packets themselves go through the router
unhindered. Therefore, both source and destination ignoring forged reset packet
makes the system entirely ineffective. They also claim that the firewall does not
maintain a state.
An influential paper in this field is [4]. In the measurement study part, the
most significant discovery is that unlike commonly believed, the censorship system
in China is like a panopticon, where filtering does not occur strictly at border
routers, but rather more centralized at AS level. They find that some filtering
occurs 13 hops past border. In our work, we provide a more fine-grained analysis
of where those filtering devices are located, answering whether all filtering occurs
at border AS, and where IDS devices are attached at router level. They also
discover that the firewall is stateful, namely a GET packet with keyword itself
will not trigger the firewall. Rather, a complete TCP handshake is required. This
contradicts with [3]. The paper also demonstrates that the RST packets sent by
IDS devices are more complicated than before. The TTL of RST is now crafted,
so we cannot identify the location of IDS devices by simply looking at the TTL
values. Therefore, we identify the location of filtering devices by sending probe
packets with increasing TTL values, and see when we receive RST packets from
censors, as proposed in this work.
The most recent work in this field is [5]. This paper reports the discontinuation
of keyword filtering in HTTP response on most routes, while that in HTTP GET
Where Does the Internet Filtering Occur in China 135
request is still prevalent. They investigate whether the firewall has a state and
yield a result that the firewall is stateful only in part of the country. All 3 works
have conflicting views of whether the firewall is stateful. Their latest tests have
done in August 2009.
3 China’s AS-Level Topology
Crandall et al. [4] claims that the firewall is better described as a panopticon,
where filtering does not strictly occur at the border and suggests that the filtering
is more at AS-level. Inspired by their work, we want to explore whether
only border ASes are involved in the filtering and how filtering occurs inside
those ASes. This knowledge is important, because if internal routers also have
filtering devices attached, censors would have the capabilities to monitor and
filter domestic traffic, which is considered not true before. It is believed that
Chinese censors do not filter domestic websites technically, presumably because
of the heavy domestic traffic flow; rather, the domestic Internet censorship is
about social control, human surveillance, peer pressure, and self-censorship. [15]
In this section, we provide a more comprehensive view of China’s AS-level
topology that lays the foundation for Section 4.
3.1 Methodology
The first step is to find the mapping between AS numbers that belongs to China
and their corresponding IP prefixes. Finding the mapping between IP prefix
and AS number is known to be hard. We propose a methodology that yields a
coarse-grained result.We first get the list of ASes that headquarter in China from
APNIC [6]. An estimated mapping between IP prefix and AS number is extracted
from the archival file obtained from Routeview [7] and RIPE [8] collectors. For
each prefix entry in the archival files, we claim that its corresponding AS is the
last AS in AS PATH.
We acknowledge that the methodology is an estimation, because 1) we do not
address the inaccuracies introduced by router interfaces that have addresses belonging
to neighboring AS, and 2) the list of ASes is incomplete as the assignment
record from APNIC does not capture all traffic originated from China.
We take the archival data collected between May and June 2010 from all
collectors of Routeview and RIPE. We parse more than 300 MRT files, and this
effort yields 408,688 AS-prefix mappings. Among them, 11,824 are in China’s
address space. In 136 AS numbers assigned to China, we find 76 corresponding
prefixes of them.
In order to get as many peerings between China and other countries as possible,
we traceroute from PlanetLab [14] nodes all over the world. A script is
written to traceroute from each PlanetLab node outside of China to each of 76
Chinese ASes that we have their corresponding IP prefixes. We take the first IP
in a prefix as the sample IP to which we traceroute.
136 X. Xu, Z.M. Mao, and J.A. Halderman
For each hop in the traceroute result, we attempt to map them back into AS
number using our estimated mappings. For those that we fail to map back, the
whois server of Team Cymru [9] that returns IP to ASN mapping is consulted.
From the traceroute result, we construct an estimated AS-level topology of
China’s network. Once the first hop inside China’s address space is noted, we
add its corresponding AS number to a graph and denote it as a border AS. The
corresponding AS numbers of all following hops are also added and are denoted
as internal ASes. In addition, we also include the immediate AS that precedes
each border AS, annotated as external AS.
CIDR report [16] analyzes the BGP table within AS2.0 and generates an
aggregation report for each individual AS. For each AS, the report contains a
list of its adjacent ASes and its announced prefix. To include the result of CIDR
report into our topology, we crawl its website. For the report of each AS, we
download the list of its adjacent ASes. We use the largest AS in China (AS4134)
to bootstrap, and do a breadth-first search over its adjacent AS list. The search
terminates whenever we encounter an AS not belonging to China.
In the resulting topology graph, the names of ASes are obtained from [9]. We
use the name to imply the ISP that an AS belongs to.
3.2 Results
We find 138 internal, 24 border and 92 external ASes. Our result shows 133
unique peerings with external ASes. Among them, 62 belong to CHINANET
and 23 belong to CNCGROUP. These two ISPs possess 63.9% of China’s total
peerings with other countries. Table 1 shows the breakdown of ISPs in China
that have the most number of unique peerings with foreign ASes according to
our experiment. The resulting topology serves as the foundation of the experiment
in the second part of the paper, while the following are some interesting
observations that are worth further investigation.
Table 1. Chinese ISP with most number of unique peerings to foreign AS
ISP AS Numbers Peerings
CHINANET 4134, 4809, 4812, 23724, 17638 62 (46.6%)
CNCGROUP 4837, 9929, 17621, 4808 23 (17.3%)
TEIN 24489, 24490 8 (6.0%)
CNNIC 37958, 24151, 45096 8 (6.0%)
CERNET 4538, 4789 9 (6.8%)
Other 9808, 9394, 4847, 7497, 9298, 23911 23 (17.3%)
It is observed that some border ASes do not peer with any internal AS at
all. These include 37958, 24151, 45096, 24489 and 24490. The first three belong
to CNNIC, the national Internet registry of China. Even though it is possible
Where Does the Internet Filtering Occur in China 137
that the lack of internal peering is due to our experimental error, we speculate
that the CNNIC ASes are used for special purposes. A future work could be
exploring whether these ASes have different filtering rules. Another owner of
this kind of AS is Trans-Eurasia Information Network, the traffic through which
should be transit traffic, which means that both the source and destination are
not in China’s address space. We do not expect to see filters being installed in
Trans-Eurasia ASes.
Our result indicates that border ASes in this country are peered with at least
20 foreign countries. Among them, U.S. is the largest one that has a peering
count of 52. Hong Kong and Japan follows U.S., and have 21 and 11 peerings
respectively. This information is useful in future work to find whether GFC
defines different policies for different countries.
3.3 Discussion
We then organize the resulting topology hierarchically. In order to do that, we
select border ASes as roots and grow trees under them with internal ASes as
children. The depth of the tree is only 2, meaning that to get to any AS we
discovered in China, we only need to traverse at most 2 other ASes. In fact, only
18 out of 138 internal nodes are at level 2.
Most of the internal ASes (87.0%) are within direct reach of border ASes.
The names of border ASes suggest that most of them belong to backbone, and
there are just 24 of them. This implies that the best vantage points for efficient
content filtering are in the border/backbone ASes since they can easily serve as
choke points, given that IDS devices have enough power and the censors do not
intend to monitor domestic traffic.
4 Locating Filtering Devices
As the key step of this study, we make efforts to find as many filtering devices as
we can to see their relationship with AS topology. Before we get started, here we
provide some brief background of the firewall. As suggested by [3], IDS devices
are attached externally to routers and thus out-of-band. The IDS terminates
TCP connection by sending multiple spoofed RST packets to both ends of the
communication. Within a period after that, all traffic between these two parties
is blocked by RST packets, no matter whether a keyword is included in the
packets.
For detailed description of the behavior of GFC, please refer to [3]. In this
section, we discover to router interfaces at which locations IDS devices are
attached.
4.1 Statefulness of the Firewall
A firewall being stateful means that we need to establish a TCP connection with
a legal handshake to trigger the firewall [3]. If we directly send a TCP packet
138 X. Xu, Z.M. Mao, and J.A. Halderman
that contains an HTTP GET with a known keyword but without a handshake,
a stateful firewall would not send any RST packet. On the other hand, if the
firewall is not stateful, any TCP packet with keyword, regardless of the existence
of TCP connection, would trigger it.
Previous works [3] and [4] have contradicting result of whether the firewall is
stateful, and [5] claims that part of the firewall is stateful. After sending a single
packet with known keyword to the first IP of 11,824 Chinese prefixes, we observe
no firewall activity at all. Assuming that the firewall behaves the same for all
IPs in a prefix, the result indicates that the firewall is now totally stateful.
The firewall being stateful is meaningful. It can at least make probing in
this kind of studies difficult. With a stateful firewall, we need to find servers in
China that accept TCP connection to determine the position of filtering devices,
rather than just probe the first IP of all prefixes with a packet that contains a
keyword. With a stateless firewall, we can easily get a comprehensive set of
filtering devices by probing all prefixes. On the other hand, in a stateful firewall,
it is time-consuming to find an active server in each prefix, because it requires
port scanning. Therefore, a stateful firewall makes probing more difficult and
reduces the completeness of this kind of measurement.
4.2 Websites Probed
Since we are unable to probe each prefix to get a complete list of filtering devices,
it is necessary to select a set of websites that are in different part of the country
to achieve better completeness. Most previous work selects websites from the
top result from search engine. This is biased, because top websites are likely
to be clustered in some big cities in China. A CNNIC report [13] states that
51.2% websites are in 5 provinces, and there are 32 provinces in China. The
least represented 17 provinces only have 10.8% of total number of websites in
China. Furthermore, 13 provinces have less than 1% representation. Therefore,
we cannot achieve our goal of getting as many filtering device as possible by
employing their methodology.
Consequently, we carefully select web servers geographically across the entire
country to probe. Our list of website covers all provinces and three major ISPs in
this country, CHINANET, CNCGROUP and CERNET. To cover all provinces,
we gather a list that contains the websites of all provincial governments. This list
is obtained from the website of the central government [10]. The list of websites
of provincial branches of CHINANET and CNCGROUP is also collected from
Google search. Moreover, from a Chinese web resource guide [11], we collect
a number of popular local websites. Taking CERNET, which is not a public
network but mainly serves academic institutes, into account, we include websites
of many universities in different parts of the country into our list.
Our final list contains 1594 websites. To show that they are geographically
diverse, we query the most popular IP geolocation database in China [17]. The
result is shown in the Appendix.
Where Does the Internet Filtering Occur in China 139
4.3 Algorithm
We probe our list of Chinese websites described in 4.1.2 to find the location of
filtering devices at router level. Our methodology is similar to the one used by
[4] and [5]. In short, the algorithm sends probing packets that contain known
keywords with increasing TTLs.
For each IP of websites in our list, we first determine if it is online and whether
it accepts TCP connection by establishing a TCP connection and sending an
innocuous HTTP GET request. If we receive RST packets or the connection
timed out, we skip it and proceed to the next website. Otherwise, we establish
another connection with it, but this time, we send an HTTP GET with a known
keyword falun that triggers the firewall.
At this moment, we wait for 5 seconds for the connection to completely die
down. This allows the real and spoofed RST exchanges among source, destination
and the firewall to complete.
Since the firewall is already triggered and now all further traffic between two
endpoints, no matter considered harmful or not, is blocked by the firewall for a
period, a simple ACK packet would trigger the firewall. Therefore, we send ACK
packets with increasing TTL, and stop whenever we receive RST from a filtering
device and record the IP address revealed by the ICMP packet that the router
interface to which the filtering device is attached sends. We skip and record the
website if the keyword does not trigger the reset in case of whitelisted websites.
4.4 Results
We found 495 router interfaces that have filtering devices attached to in our
experiment, 106 more than in [4]. The proportions of filtering interfaces that
each ISP has are as follows: CHINANET has 79.4%; CNCGROUP possess 17.4%,
and the rest 3.2% belong to other ISPs. We get largely identical proportion for
CHINANET as in [4], but for CNCGROUP, our percentage is three times of their
result. Our result suggests that the placement of IDS device of CHINANET is
stable since 2007, and the filtering power of CNCGROUP is growing and now
counts for almost one fifth of all filtering interfaces in the country. We can derive
that the filtering capability of CHINANET is mature, as the increase in traffic
has not made it too overloaded to force them adding more filtering interfaces for
several years.
Table 2 shows what ASes the filtering devices belong to. We consult the whois
server of Team Cymru [9] for IP to ASN mapping.
Not surprisingly, most of the filtering devices belong to the border ASes.
However, we find that some of them are in internal ASes. The proportion is
small (2.9%), so it is prone to errors introduced by inaccurate IP to AS number
mapping. However, it is still worth noting. We will continue to monitor this
number, to see if there exists a trend that censors deploy more and more filtering
devices to internal ASes.
All except for two internal filtering interfaces belong to CHINANET, and none
belongs to CNCGROUP. Since this is particularly questionable, we examine our
140 X. Xu, Z.M. Mao, and J.A. Halderman
Table 2. ASes that contain filtering devices
AS Number AS Name Number of Filtering Interfaces
Border ASes 481
4134 CHINANET-BACKBONE 374
4812 CHINANET-SH-AP 9
4837 CHINA169-BACKBONE CNCGROUP 82
9929 CNCNET-CN 4
4538 ERX-CERNET-BKB 4
9808 CMNET-GD 5
9394 CRNET 3
Non-border ASes 14
23650 CHINANET-JS-AS-AP 4
17785 CHINATELECOM-HA-AS-AP 4
37943 CNNIC-GIANT 3
38356 TIMENET 1
17633 CHINATELECOM-SD-AS-AP 1
4813 BACKBONE-GUANGDONG-AP 1
traceroute log more carefully. As a result, we find that if the first router interface
in China’s address space belongs to CHINANET, it rarely conducts any filtering.
Pursuing this further, we find that many filtering router interfaces do not seem
to belong to the same prefix as that of the first few router interfaces into the
country, so we whois CHINANET’s filtering interfaces to find more.
The result is interesting. Despite the name of AS4134 suggests, only 49 of
374 filtering interfaces actually belong to the backbone of CHINANET, and the
rest of them are actually belong to provincial branch companies of CHINANET.
In AS4134, we find that 16 provinces have their own filtering devices. Counting
Shanghai that is not represented in AS4134 but has its own AS number, 80% of
21 provinces that CHINANET serves [12] do their own filtering. The provinces
that are observed not having their own filtering are Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai and
Ningxia. According to a CNNIC report [13], the number of IP addresses in these
4 provinces only counts 2.5% of the nation’s total number of IPs. Table 3 shows
where the filtering devices are located in AS4134.We only list the provinces that
are in the service area of CHINANET.
This implies that CHINANET, instead of filtering strictly along the border,
offloads the burden to its provincial network. On the other hand, CNCGROUP
has most of its filtering devices in the backbone rather than provincial network,
and all its filtering is done within very few hops into China’s address space. We
also whois the IP address of those filtering devices, and find that 74 out of 82, or
90% of filtering devices belongs to the backbone of CNCGROUP. This indicates
that two major ISPs in China have different approaches placing their filtering
devices.
The total bandwidth of CHINANET’s international connection is
616703Mbps, and that of CNCGROUP is 330599Mbps [13]. Moreover, the number
of peerings with foreign AS of CHINANET is 3 times of that of CNCGROUP.
CHINANET, as a larger operator that has international bandwidth 2 times of
Where Does the Internet Filtering Occur in China 141
Table 3. Locations of filtering devices in AS4134
Province # Devices Percentage
Backbone 49 13.10%
Guangdong 84 22.46%
Fujian 29 7.75%
Hunan 28 7.49%
Hubei 24 6.42%
Sichuan 22 5.88%
Yunnan 21 5.61%
Guangxi 19 5.08%
Jiangsu 19 5.08%
Zhejiang 15 4.01%
Guizhou 14 3.74%
Jiangxi 14 3.74%
Hainan 11 2.94%
Chongqing 10 2.67%
Anhui 6 1.60%
Unidentified 6 1.60%
Xinjiang 2 0.53%
Tibet 1 0.27%
CNCGROUP, needs to filter more network traffic. Placing all filtering devices in
backbone might have created a bottleneck for CHINANET, and allowed some
unwanted traffic to go through. This might partly explain why they have different
IDS placement strategies.
Another implication is that the filtering devices being in the provincial network
allows censor to inspect inter-province traffic. Even though there is no
evidence that they are doing this right now, this arrangement makes the future
deployment of stricter firewall that censors domestic traffic easier.
5 Conclusion
Chinese censors impose strict restrictions on international Internet traffic. In
order to understand the national-scale intrusion detection system better, this
is the first study dedicated to explore both AS and router-level structures of
China’s censored network.
As a preparation, the first part of the paper presents our approximate result
of China’s AS-level Internet topology. We manage to collect the peering among
265 China-related ASes. In the second part of our work, we probe the firewall
in an attempt to gather as many filtering interfaces as we can and to relate AS
topology to the location of those filtering devices. We find that most filtering
occurs in border ASes, but two major filtering ISP’s have different approaches
placing their filtering devices. CHINANET does not place most of its filtering
devices in its backbone, but rather distribute the work to provincial networks.
This makes censoring domestic traffic easier.
142 X. Xu, Z.M. Mao, and J.A. Halderman
References
1. The Great Firewall Revealed,
http://www.internetfreedom.org/files/WhitePaper/
ChinaGreatFirewallRevealed.pdf
2. China’s Great Firewall spreads overseas,
http://www.networkworld.com/news/2010/
032510-chinas-great-firewall-spreads.html
3. Clayton, R., Murdoch, S., Watson, R.: Ignoring the Great Firewall of China. In:
Danezis, G., Golle, P. (eds.) PET 2006. LNCS, vol. 4258, pp. 20–35. Springer,
Heidelberg (2006)
4. Crandall, J., Barr, E.: ConceptDoppler: AWeather Tracker for Internet Censorship.
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The Proceedings of the 30th International Conference on Distributed Computing
Systems (2010)
6. APNIC delegated internet number resource,
http://ftp.apnic.net/stats/apnic/delegated-apnic-latest
7. University of Oregon Route Views Archive Project,
http://archive.routeviews.org/
8. RIPE NCC Projects, http://www.ripe.net/projects/ris/rawdata.html
9. Team Cymru, http://www.team-cymru.org/Services/ip-to-asn.html
10. The Central People’s Government of the People’s Republic of China,
http://www.gov.cn/zwgk/2008-04/23/content_952239.htm
11. Dao Hang Wang, http://www.daohang.com/
12. China Comservice, http://www.chinaccs.com.hk/eng/about/history.htm
13. The 26th Statistical Reports on the Internet Development in China, http://www.
cnnic.cn/uploadfiles/pdf/2010/7/15/100708.pdf
14. PlanetLab, http://www.planet-lab.org
15. The Connection Has Been Reset, http://msl1.mit.edu/furdlog/docs/atlantic/
2008-03_atlantic_fallows_chinese_firewall.pdf
16. CIDR Report, http://www.cidr-report.org/as2.0/
17. Chunzhen IP geolocation database, http://www.cz88.net
Appendix: Geographical Locations of Probed Websites
This is a list of provinces represented in our probed websites. It is a result after
querying the database of [17] dated December 30, 2010. The number in bracket
is the number of probed websites in that province.
Shanghai (24), Yunnan (36), Inner Mongolia (29), Beijing (94), Hubei (48),
Guangdong (115), Fujian (59), Jilin (25), Sichuan (65), Liaolin (63), Tianjin (16),
Ningxia (15), Anhui (43), Shandong (73), Shanxi (31), Guangxi (39), Xinjiang
(28), Jiangsu (82), Jiangxi (45), Hebei (48), Henan (63), Zhejiang (69), Hainan
(21), Hunan (44), Gansu (35), Shaanxi(36), Tibet (4), Guizhou (28), Chongqing
(15), Qinghai (5), Heilongjiang (28), Other (268)

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